Victim precipitation theory

This may be attributed to the high guardianship in the form of security systems, and a lack of motivated offenders. In contrast, victim precipitation is a behavioral concept used by social scientists to determine the causes of victimization.

Missing data raise the question of validity in research findings.

The Four Theories of Victimization

During passive precipitation, the victim unconsciously exhibits behaviors or characteristics that instigate or encourage the attack. In order to lower the chance that one will become the victim of a crime, the individual should avoid the "bad" areas of town where crime rates are high.

Situation examples include being in public places late at night, regular excessive alcohol consumption, substance abuse, having affiliations to criminals, and indulging in criminal activities. Because of such criticism, it is important to differentiate victim precipitation, which is a behavioral concept, from provocation, which is a legal notion.

However, as Denmark is not a signatory they are not obligated to implement the directive. The entire process is explained in the form of theories, of which the prominent ones are: This is crucial in relation to compensation claims, whereby foreign citizens are not afforded the same access to compensation.

When dealing with this theory we must ask ourselves whether or not it is really okay to blame the occurrence of a crime on the victim. The presence of motivated offenders.

Outrageous Theory of Victim Precipitation Explained With Examples

Furthermore, perpetrators are often being convicted under statutes which prescribe a much less serious penalty than other anti-trafficking laws. Victim precipitation, in contrast, focuses on the behavior of the victim without accusations of fault or guilt.

Furthermore, with an understanding of the patterns of victimization through the lens of one or more of these theories, the criminal justice system, as well as the general public, may better be equipped to prevent crime and treat the many victims. However, over the course of time, it has become apparent that the victim also plays a role in the occurrence of a criminal act, and this has given rise to the field of victimology, which studies the relationships between the victim and victimizer, and tries to determine the dynamics of the criminal act.

The Four Theories of Victimization

In desperation, the woman reaches for any sharp object she can find, and stabs the man. This observation was achieved as a result of Dr. These early typologies of victimisation, in which precipitation played a part, were often developed by lawyers attempting to understand how much responsibility the victim carried relative to that of the offender.


This previous statement was discussed in a psychology journal by Jared Dempsey, Gary Fireman, and Eugene Wang, in which they note the correlation between victims and the perpetrators of crimes, both exhibiting impulsive and antisocial-like behaviors Feminist scholars were particularly disturbed and argued that Amir used rape myths to justify sexual assault.

Deviant Place Theory The deviant place theory states that greater exposure to dangerous places makes an individual more likely to become the victim of a crime Seigel, In addition, every victim whom comes before the system has the right to an interpreter as well as free translation of legal documents from the victim's primary language of understanding.

This is the most commonly seen scenario in case of homicides, sexual assault, and other violent crimes. Very rarely are these crimes premeditated. A competing interest can also be considered passive precipitation, if it motivated the offender to attack the victim.

Victim Precipitation Theories

When dealing with this theory we must ask ourselves whether or not it is really okay to blame the occurrence of a crime on the victim. The PAP would be deemed to have withdrawn charges, if an appeal on the fact and law was filed by them, this would immediately be dismissed.

Communities with ample police protection, alarms and other security devices, and community watch teams, lower their risk by creating guardianship, which is noted under this theory to reduce crime rates. The perception of the world as meaningless and incomprehensible. Because of this, the author and colleagues believe that we should not ignore victim precipitation, no matter how distastefully it is viewed by some authors see Eigenberg et al.

These tend to be spontaneous and crimes of passion. Post crime distress is also linked to pre-existing emotional problems and sociodemographic variables. A state fund for compensation for victims of violent crimes exists called The State Fund for the Victims of Crime. Active precipitation occurs when the victim knowingly provokes the offender by way of provocative clothing, vulgar language, provocative body language, use of threats and swear words, or by minor attacks.

This is especially true in cases of rape when flirtation may be present, yet there is no consent to sexual intercourse. Wolfgang's analysis of homicide cases in Philadelphia. Victim precipitation theories generally involve an explanation of how an individual's behavior may contribute to his or her own victimization.

Behavior by a victim that initiates subsequent behavior of the victimizer is referred to as victim. Lastly, the victim precipitation theory claims that, the victim initiates confrontations that eventually lead to his/her own victimization. This is the most commonly seen scenario in case of homicides, sexual assault, and other violent crimes.

Victim Precipitation Theory.

Outrageous Theory of Victim Precipitation Explained With Examples

Aug 23,  · Active precipitation, on the other hand, is the opposite of the afore-described. Victimization under this theory occurs through the threatening or provocative actions of the cwiextraction.coms: 8.

Victim precipitation is an evident component in several different types of crime, most notably homicide, assault, rape, and robbery. The Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice Browse other articles of this reference work.

The victim precipitation theory suggests that some people cause or initiate a particular confrontation that may eventually lead to that person becoming victimized by injury or death. Such precipitation on part of the victim can either be active or passive. Victim Precipitated Forcible Rape Menachem Amir Follow this and additional works Theoretically, victim precipitation of forcible concepts, see Cressey, Role Theory, D1fferential Associa-tion, and Compulsive Crimes, in .

Victim precipitation theory
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SAGE Reference - Victim Precipitation Theories